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Insulin Together With Obesity: Or Together With Thus Other Blast Inwards The Coffin

There are several versions of the insulin hypothesis of obesity, only the versions that are most visible to the public generally land that elevated circulating insulin (whether astute or chronic) increases trunk fatness.  Some versions invoke insulin's effects on fatty tissue, others its effects inwards the brain.  This watch has been used to explicate why low-carbohydrate together with low-glycemic-index diets tin laissez passer on notice Pb to weight loss (although frankly, glycemic index per se doesn't seem to withdraw maintain much if whatever touching on on trunk weight inwards controlled trials). 

I withdraw maintain explained inwards diverse posts why this watch does non seem to live on right (1, 2, 3), together with why, after extensive research, the insulin hypothesis of obesity lost steam past times the slowly 1980s.  However, I lately came across ii experiments that tested the hypothesis every bit straight every bit it tin laissez passer on notice live on tested-- past times chronically increasing circulating insulin inwards animals together with measurement nutrient intake together with trunk weight and/or trunk fatness.  If the hypothesis is correct, these animals should gain fat, together with mayhap consume to a greater extent than every bit well. 

In the showtime study, published inwards 1980 past times Dr. Dennis A. Vanderweele together with colleagues, rats were implanted alongside mini-pumps delivering insulin at a steady charge per unit of measurement throughout the twenty-four sixty minutes catamenia together with black for seven days (4).  They tested 4 different doses: 0, 1, 2 together with half dozen units per day, together with measured nutrient intake together with trunk weight.  This is a model of chronically elevated insulin reminiscent of what is seen inwards insulin-resistant people. 

They establish that all doses of insulin reduced trunk weight gain, only solely the 2 unit of measurement dose was statistically significant.  They speculated that the half dozen unit of measurement dose was less effective at reducing weight gain because it was sufficiently high to crusade hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), which is a strong trigger for nutrient intake.  Total nutrient intake was suppressed at all doses past times insulin every bit well, only this was champaign non due to illness.  The authors conclude:
1) insulin limits repast size when blood levels are modestly elevated for prolonged periods of fourth dimension inwards the rat, 2) this decrease inwards repast size is non compensated for past times an increment inwards repast frequency and, hence, full daily nutrient ingestion together with trunk weight gain are reduced, together with 3) this resultant appears to live on a heightening of satiety rather than an induction of illness.
The 2d study, published inwards 2002 inwards Nature Medicine past times Dr. Ellen L. Air together with colleagues, took a different approach (5).  The authors used a drug called Cpd2, which mimics the resultant of insulin on the insulin receptor, only tin laissez passer on notice live on taken orally rather than past times injection (6).

They placed mice on a fattening diet (HFD) alongside or without Cpd2 added to the food, together with then measured nutrient intake, trunk weight together with trunk fatness over a half dozen calendar week period.  Here is what they observed when they measured trunk fatness:

Consistent alongside the previous study, Cpd2 opposed weight together with fatty gain, together with suppressed nutrient intake every bit well, without causing illness.  Glucose tolerance together with blood glucose levels were also improved inwards the Cpd2-treated group.

It is worthwhile to banknote that at that topographic point are also studies showing that daily injections of long-acting insulin Pb to trunk fatty gain inwards rodents over fourth dimension (6a, 6b, 6c).  However, these studies used high doses of insulin that resulted inwards hypoglycemia, which every bit I mentioned to a higher house is a strong trigger for nutrient intake together with causes a major hormonal answer (the "counter-regulatory response").  That's the unique matter almost the studies discussed above-- they investigated the touching on of insulin signaling on trunk fatness without involving hypoglycemia, a province of affairs that is to a greater extent than akin to what is observed inwards people alongside elevated fasting insulin due to insulin resistance. 

The Final Nail

Contrary to what the insulin hypothesis of obesity predicts, chronically elevated insulin if anything seems to oppose weight together with fatty accumulation inwards brute models.  This probable involves insulin's activity inwards the encephalon to constrain trunk fatty accumulation.

The evidence suggests that:
  • Experimentally preventing the increment inwards circulating insulin that occurs on fattening diets does non modify the class of fatty gain inwards rodents or dogs (7).
  • Experimentally elevating circulating insulin past times creating liver insulin resistance does non Pb to fatty gain inwards rodents (8).
  • Experimentally increasing circulating insulin past times infusing it straight into the blood does non crusade fatty gain inwards rodents, only instead makes them leaner (above).
  • Roughly a quarter of obese humans withdraw maintain normal circulating insulin together with normal insulin sensitivity ("metabolically healthy" obese) (9).
  • In Pima (Akimel O'odham) native Americans, i of the most obesity-prone populations inwards the world, together with certainly other populations, insulin resistance together with higher insulin secretion consistently predict less trunk fatty gain over fourth dimension (10, 11, 12, 12a, 12b). This has non been observed inwards all populations, only the fact that it occurs inwards roughly casts farther dubiety on the watch that elevated insulin is a fundamental contributor to fatty gain.
Researchers withdraw maintain been studying insulin's touching on on nutrient intake together with trunk fatness for a long time, together with amid those who are the most intimately involved inwards the field, the watch that elevated insulin leads to trunk fatty accumulation seemed rather unlikely past times the slowly 1980s (13).  Although biological scientific discipline is complex, together with you lot tin laissez passer on notice never live on totally certainly where scientific progress volition lead, nosotros withdraw maintain plenty evidence at this indicate to tell that this hypothesis is in all likelihood non correct.  We directly know that nutrient intake is regulated past times a complex 'symphony' of signals originating from the brain, fatty tissue, the alimentary canal together with the pancreas, together with insulin seems to play niggling or no purpose inwards this procedure on a meal-to-meal solid pose down (14).  In the long term, it may constrain nutrient intake together with trunk fatty majority due to its actions inwards the brain, inwards a vogue similar to leptin (although less potently). 

We ask a ameliorate hypothesis to explicate why low-carbohydrate diets crusade fatty loss inwards many obese people, together with nosotros definitely ask a ameliorate hypothesis to explicate why obesity arises inwards the showtime place.  An choice hypothesis, that insulin opposes fatty gain through its activity inwards the brain, is plausible together with has received back upwards from a multifariousness of lines of evidence.  Insulin resistance inwards the brain, leading to reduced insulin signaling inwards neurons, has been documented inwards brute models of obesity, together with probable contributes to fatty accumulation. Therefore, the 'insulin hypothesis of obesity' that makes feel is that a reduced insulin (and especially leptin) signal inwards the encephalon contributes to fatty gain.



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