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Palatability, Satiety As Well As Calorie Intake

WHS reader Paul Hagerty late sent me a rattling interesting newspaper titled "A Satiety Index of Common Foods", past times Dr. SHA Holt together with colleagues (1).  This newspaper quantified how total nosotros experience after eating specific foods.  I've been aware of it for a while, but hadn't read it until recently.  They fed volunteers a diversity of commonly eaten foods, each inwards a 240 calorie portion, together with measured how total each nutrient made them feel, together with how much they ate at a subsequent meal.  Using the results, they calculated a "satiety index", which represents the fullness per calorie of each food, normalized to white breadstuff (white breadstuff arbitrarily laid upward to SI = 100).  So for example, popcorn has a satiety index of 154, important it's to a greater extent than filling than white breadstuff per calorie. 

One of the nearly interesting aspects of the newspaper is that the investigators measured a diversity of nutrient properties (energy density, fat, starch, sugar, fiber, H2O content, palatability), together with and then determined which of them explained the SI values nearly completely.

As I've explained on this weblog before, the encephalon "shuts down" or ignores feelings of fullness when you lot eat highly palatable foods, together with this tin hold upward mimicked past times administering drugs (such equally marijuana or opiates) that cause these encephalon pathways straight (2, 3).  That's 1 argue why there's ever room for dessert. The machinery of this consequence has been partially worked out, together with involves communication betwixt encephalon regions that regulate vantage together with nutrient intake (4, 5, 6).

Lucky for us, the investigators measured the palatability of each nutrient together with compared it to that food's SI.  If nutrient palatability does indeed unopen downward the mechanisms inwards the encephalon that unremarkably constrain nutrient intake, nosotros would await that foods rated equally to a greater extent than palatable would require maintain a lower SI.  Here's what they found:

The to a greater extent than palatable the food, the less filling per calorie, together with the human relationship was quite rigid for a study of this nature.  This is consistent amongst the evidence that highly palatable foods unopen downward the mechanisms inwards the encephalon that constrain nutrient intake.  Croissants had the lowest SI (47), piece potatoes had the highest (323).  Overall, baked goods together with candy had the lowest SI.  They didn't bear witness sweetness potatoes, but I suspect they would require maintain been like to potatoes.  Other foods amongst a high SI include meat/fish, whole grain foods, fruit together with porridge.

Palatability was 1 of the 2 strongest predictors of SI.  It was tied at commencement house amongst unloosen energy density (calories per gram of food)*.  The to a greater extent than energy-dense a food, the less infinite a given publish of calories occupies inwards the stomach.  Lower unloosen energy density, together with higher water, fiber together with poly peptide content were associated amongst higher SI, piece palatability together with fatty content were associated amongst lower SI.  Starch together with saccharide content were non associated amongst SI.  SI predicted subsequent nutrient intake, such that foods amongst a higher SI led to less calorie intake 2 hours later.
This study, along amongst many others, suggests that focusing on uncomplicated foods that require maintain a lower unloosen energy density leads to greater fullness together with less subsequent nutrient intake, together with conversely that highly palatable energy-dense foods promote excessive nutrient intake.  Potatoes, sweetness potatoes, meats, fish, vegetables, fruits, rice together with beans are foods amongst a moderate score of palatability together with unloosen energy density, together with are consequently helpful for weight loss together with maintenance.  Conversely, baked goods, candy, H2O ice cream together with fried foods require maintain the lowest SI, reflecting their extreme palatability together with unloosen energy density.  These are precisely the same foods people eat to salve stress, which reinforces the fact that they are hyper-palatable together with hyper-rewarding (7).  In my opinion, these are amidst the nearly fattening foods, together with the obesity literature equally a whole supports this.

The newspaper finished amongst this statement, unopen to of which may audio familiar to regular WHS followers:
...simple, 'whole' foods such equally the fruits, potatoes, steak together with fish were the nearly satiating of all foods tested.  Interestingly, many industrial plant life foods such equally beans, lentils together with potatoes comprise antinutrients which tin delay or inhibit the absorption of nutrients or affects gastrointestinal hormone release.  These factors could contribute to their greater satiating powers.

* Also, H2O content, but this is basically a proxy for unloosen energy density.


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