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New Review Newspaper Past Times Yours Truly: High-Fat Dairy, Obesity, Metabolic Wellness Together With Cardiovascular Disease

My colleagues Drs. Mario Kratz, Ton Baars, in addition to I only published a newspaper inwards the European Journal of Nutrition titled "The Relationship Between High-Fat Dairy Consumption in addition to Obesity, Cardiovascular, in addition to Metabolic Disease".  Mario is a nutrition researcher at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center hither inwards Seattle, in addition to friend of mine.  He's doing only about really interesting enquiry on nutrition in addition to wellness (with an involvement inwards ancestral diets), in addition to I'm confident that we'll hold upward getting only about major insights from his enquiry grouping inwards the close future.  Mario specializes inwards tightly controlled human feeding trials.  Ton is an agricultural scientist at the University of Kassel inwards Germany, who specializes inwards the trial of beast husbandry practices (e.g., grass vs. grain feeding) on the nutritional composition of dairy.  None of us possess got whatever connectedness to the dairy manufacture or whatever other conflicts of interest.

The newspaper is organized into 3 sections:
  1. A comprehensive review of the observational studies that possess got examined the human relationship betwixt high-fat dairy and/or dairy obese consumption in addition to obesity, metabolic health, diabetes, in addition to cardiovascular disease.
  2. A give-and-take of the possible mechanisms that could underlie the observational findings.
  3. Differences betwixt pasture-fed in addition to conventional dairy, in addition to the potential wellness implications of these differences.

 We wrote this newspaper because afterward reviewing the evidence, nosotros found it to hold upward surprising in addition to fairly contradictory to conventional ideas on nutrition in addition to health.  I wrote the sections on obesity, metabolic wellness in addition to diabetes, Mario wrote the sections on cardiovascular affliction in addition to obese acids, in addition to Ton wrote the department on husbandry practices in addition to dairy obese composition.  Mario was the Pb writer in addition to did most of the editing/formatting, submitted the manuscript, etc.  Our newspaper went through a rigorous peer review process.

Here are our basic findings:
  • High-fat dairy consumption is non associated amongst obesity, inwards fact, eleven out of sixteen studies found that higher dairy obese intake is associated amongst lower trunk obese and/or less obese gain over time.  None identified an association betwixt high-fat dairy consumption in addition to obese gain, although only about did discovery an association betwixt low-fat dairy consumption in addition to obese gain.
  • High-fat dairy consumption is non associated amongst poorer metabolic health.  Six of eleven studies found that higher high-fat dairy consumption is associated amongst improve metabolic health, spell exclusively 1 found that it was associated amongst 1 mark of poorer metabolic wellness (and this report used an strange design). 
  • The association betwixt high-fat dairy intake in addition to diabetes adventure is inconsistent.  Zero of viii studies found that high-fat dairy consumption is associated amongst diabetes risk, in addition to 3 found that it was protective.  However, 3 studies besides found that low-fat dairy intake was inversely associated amongst diabetes risk, compared to no association amongst high-fat dairy, suggesting yesteryear inference that the obese content of the dairy could hold upward harmful.  These studies all adjusted for trunk fatness.  Since trunk fatness is a commutation adventure element for diabetes, in addition to dairy obese intake is inversely associated amongst trunk fatness, this is patently a major confound.  We discussed this in addition to other potential confounds inwards the paper.
  • The evidence on cardiovascular affliction is inconsistent, amongst a number of studies suggesting a protective association, a few suggesting a harmful one, in addition to several suggesting no association.
  • Dairy obese is a complex substance.  There are major differences inwards the obese acid composition of dairy from pasture-raised vs. conventionally raised cows, in addition to many of these obese acids are bioactive in addition to could influence human health.
  • We besides utter over the limitations of observational studies inwards only about detail, in addition to many other issues that I won't touching on here.
What This Paper Means

This is the kickoff comprehensive review of studies on the association betwixt high-fat dairy intake in addition to obesity, metabolic, in addition to cardiovascular health.  Typical dietary advice includes the recommendation to eat low-fat or skim dairy products.  This is based on the hypothesis that avoiding the (mostly saturated) obese inwards dairy volition trim back the adventure of obesity, metabolic problems, in addition to cardiovascular disease.  This thought is logical, but non every thought that is logical is right when tested scientifically, peculiarly when it pertains to a complex natural food.  We asked the query "what does the evidence order almost this hypothesis?"

The enquiry to appointment suggests that high-fat dairy overall does non possess got a negative send on on obesity risk, metabolic problems, diabetes risk, or cardiovascular disease.  In fact, these studies offering fairly strong back upward to the hypothesis that high-fat dairy may protect against obesity.  However, at that topographic point was variability betwixt studies in addition to this may hold upward explained yesteryear factors such equally a) differences inwards the character of dairy products betwixt countries/regions, b) the degree inwards which dairy is consumed (e.g., traditional cheeses vs. H2O ice cream in addition to pizza), in addition to c) other confounding factors discussed inwards the paper. 

Please proceed inwards heed that these studies are observational in addition to thence tin ambit the axe non constitute drive in addition to effect. They're best viewed equally a springboard for futurity research.

What This Paper Doesn't Mean

I desire to hold upward really clear almost this.  This newspaper does non hateful that adding butter to all your nutrient volition brand y'all lose obese or larn healthier.  In fact, if y'all produce that y'all volition most probable gain obese in addition to larn less healthy.  Say what??  The studies nosotros reviewed examined the purpose of high-fat dairy inwards the context of normal varied diet patterns.  They did non compare people eating usually to people who pose extra butter on everything, which is an first-class manner to increase your calorie intake.  Essentially they compared people eating high-fat dairy to people eating other types of fats equally purpose of a mixed diet.  The divergence is subtle but critical to understand: add-on vs. replacement. 

So does this hateful that replacing other types of fats amongst dairy obese (pasture-raised inwards particular), inwards the context of a normal varied diet, could Pb to less obese gain in addition to maybe fifty-fifty improve wellness over time?  Perhaps.  That is what the studies propose overall.  But again, these are observational studies amongst major limitations, then we'll possess got to facial expression for to a greater extent than evidence earlier nosotros tin ambit the axe hang our hats on the idea.  In the meantime, it's clear that typical dietary recommendations to favor low-fat dairy over high-fat dairy are on sparse ice.


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