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Food Variety, Calorie Intake, Together With Weight Gain

Let's kicking off this postal service amongst a quote from a 2001 review newspaper (1):
Increased diversity inwards the nutrient render may contribute to the evolution together with maintenance of obesity.  Thirty-nine studies examining dietary variety, liberate energy intake, together with torso composition are reviewed. Animal together with human studies present that nutrient consumption increases when in that place is to a greater extent than diversity inwards a repast or diet together with that greater dietary diversity is associated amongst increased torso weight together with fat.
This may appear counterintuitive, since diversity inwards the diet is to a greater extent than ofttimes than non seen every bit a skillful thing.  In unopen to ways, it is a skillful thing, withal inwards this postal service we'll encounter that it tin conduct maintain a downside.

When doing my park rounds of the literature terminal week, I came across a fascinating newspaper I hadn't seen earlier titled "Variety inwards the Diet Enhances Intake inwards a Meal together with Contributes to the Development of Obesity inwards the Rat", yesteryear physician Barbara Rolls together with colleagues (2).  As the championship suggests, they examined the outcome of nutrient palatability together with diversity on nutrient intake together with fatty make inwards rats.  They tested 6 dissimilar diets:
  1. Regular rat chow
  2. Rat chow addition crackers
  3. Rat chow addition cookies
  4. Rat chow addition chocolate
  5. Rat chow addition crackers, cookies, or chocolate, amongst each of the palatable foods given inwards succession (i.e. chow addition crackers, together with then chow addition cookies, etc.).
  6. Rat chow addition crackers, cookies, together with chocolate all at the same time.  
Adding a palatable nutrient to the cage (crackers, cookies, or chocolate) increased nutrient intake, every bit expected.  Adding multiple palatable foods immediately increased nutrient intake further, suggesting that diversity inwards add-on to palatability contributed to nutrient intake.

When rats were fed these diets for vii weeks, they produced major differences inwards weight gain:


Consistent amongst the nutrient intake data, each of the palatable foods increased weight together with fatty gain, withal giving them all immediately caused the rats to make weight together with fatty at an fifty-fifty higher rate.  We already knew from the "cafeteria diet" studies that slowly access to a diversity of palatable foods tin sweat rapid fatty make inwards rats together with humans (3, 4), only this written report shows that nutrient diversity itself is an of import business office of the equation.
The results of this experiment present that the simultaneous presentation of a diversity of palatable foods tin atomic number 82 to hyperphagia [excessive eating] together with the evolution of obesity.
Food diversity is a determinant of the palatability together with vantage value of the repast every bit a whole.  However, to hold upward to a greater extent than precise, variety-induced overeating is ordinarily explained yesteryear a related phenomenon called "sensory-specific satiety".  The thought is this: every bit a repast progresses, nosotros larn tired of eating specific foods, only being' full' on 1 nutrient doesn't necessarily hateful nosotros desire to halt eating unopen to other food.  If a diversity of foods are acquaint on the table, nosotros tend to swallow to a greater extent than total nutrient earlier feeling satisfied.  There is a large amount of show supporting the concept of sensory-specific satiety together with its relevance to nutrient intake.

What most the outcome of nutrient diversity on humans?  A release of trials conduct maintain shown that increasing nutrient diversity increases total calorie intake at a unmarried meal, fifty-fifty if the foods all conduct maintain nearly identical composition (7), together with why nosotros tend to overeat together with make fatty inwards the modern nutrient environment, which offers slowly access to a huge diversity of dissimilar foods.

I'll unopen amongst a quote from the paper:
In the affluent Western Society, nutrient is presented inwards a succession of simultaneous diversity meals, together with inwards this case, the challenge presented yesteryear diversity to torso weight rule is much greater together with could atomic number 82 to fifty-fifty greater increases inwards torso weight [than was observed inwards this study].
Update: "DagherStrength" pointed out on twitter that this helps explicate "unbuckle your pants syndrome" at all-you-can-eat buffets.  Good point!


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