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The Properties Of Human Encephalon In Addition To Encephalon - Based Learning

The encephalon is an organ that receives, registers together with processes information. It is the most frail together with the most complicated organ. The human encephalon is a watery gelatinous volume of nervus cells or neurons. Neurons are the basic edifice blocks of human brain. Neurons communicate amongst i to a greater extent than or less other through synapses. Recent study indicates that an average human encephalon has virtually 23 billion neurons (Rabinowicz et al 2002). Each of the neuron has virtually 60,000 to 100,000 synaptic connections together with has a full number of synaptic connections of virtually 1027 . The human encephalon is connected to 30,000 miles (50,000 kms) of nerves. The neurons are arranged destination to destination together with the neurotransmitters transfer signals across the gaps (synapses) of 0.02 to 0.05 microns. The encephalon is a dense spider web of interconnecting synapses. Neurons communicate using electrical impulses. The neurons genuinely brand upward less than a 10th of the cells inwards the brain. The other 90-98% yesteryear number is glial cells, which are involved inwards evolution together with maintenance.


Computational mightiness of human brain

The estimated computational mightiness of the human encephalon is virtually 1013 to 1016 operations per second. The speed of conduction of message is 200 miles per hour. The performance of a encephalon depends upon non on the number of neurons, only upon the data network (neural pathways) together with the number of synapses. The neural pathways are both the network along which unloosen energy travels together with the pattern through which data is processed inwards the brain. The number of synapses within a human encephalon is conduct related to intellectual together with academic performance, activities that are centered inwards the human cerebrum.
The human beingness has the highest ratio of weight of the encephalon to the full trunk weight. The human encephalon weighs virtually 1.5 kgs, virtually 2 percentage of trunk weight. The encephalon requires xv percentage of the blood, 40- l percentage of the oxygen render together with 25 percentage of the calories nosotros consume. Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 xv sec blockage of blood to the encephalon volition resultant inwards unconsciousness. The encephalon cells are sensitive to oxygen availability. The encephalon cells select the mightiness of dividing together with giving ascent to novel healthy cells, most peculiarly inwards the hippocampus, the expanse most crucial to learning together with memory.
              “The human brain, together with then is the most complicated organization 
                  of affair that nosotros know”--Isaac       Asimov.

Growth stages of human brain 

First increment occurs at the historic catamenia of two, when a pocket-size fry starts to walk together with laid out to talk.
The instant increment occurs at the historic catamenia of six, when the pocket-size fry begins to acquire to read together with do math. The 3rd increment occurs at the historic catamenia of twelve, when he or she begins to grasp abstract together with logical concepts. The diverse regions of the encephalon prepare at dissimilar rates inwards dissimilar people. No 2 people’s encephalon stores the same data inwards the same way inwards the same place. Biologically the encephalon processes 400 billion bits of data per second, only is exclusively aware of 2000 bits whatsoever i time.

Functional properties of human brain 

The encephalon expands amongst utilisation – the to a greater extent than the encephalon is used, the to a greater extent than retentiveness associations are formed. No novel nervus cells prepare inwards the encephalon after nascence only novel synapses do seem to grow together with develop. New neural circuits together with networks cast betwixt the neurons.
The encephalon loves to explore together with brand sense of the basis – human encephalon is endlessly seeking to brand sense of what it experiences. The encephalon seeks to found novel networks to procedure together with shop knowledge. The brain’s blueprint strikes a relaxation betwixt circuit performance together with circuit plasticity. More plasticity exists inwards cortical circuits, where novel dendrites tin flame grow together with synaptic connections tin flame live made throughout life.
The encephalon is a pattern detector – the encephalon makes sense of the basis yesteryear constructing or mapping patterns of the world. Nature exists every bit patterns. The recognition component division of the encephalon involves ‘pattern matching’.
The encephalon is ‘born’ prematurely – much of its evolution occurs after nascence together with for many years afterwards. Experience tin flame shape the brain. Neuroplasticity is the mightiness of the encephalon to alter every bit a resultant of experience. Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 creative encephalon is flexible together with imaginative.
Every encephalon is wired differently – the charge per unit of measurement of neural growth seems to fit the intensity of real-world learning. Learning results inwards growing novel neural networks i.e. novel knowledge structures. Learners of the same historic catamenia present a slap-up bargain of intellectual variability.
The brain’s mightiness of attending – the encephalon naturally focuses on concepts sequentially, i at a time. The encephalon operates on alternating cycles of high attending together with periods of inattention. During the catamenia of inattention, the encephalon engages inwards the procedure of questioning, revising, one’s agreement etc. inwards lodge to encompass i.e. ‘concept consolidation’.
Exercise boosts encephalon power – Exercise stimulates i of the brain’s most powerful growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF), which aids inwards the evolution of novel cells inwards the brain. Exercise increases blood flow to the encephalon together with the blood brings glucose, oxygen together with proteins. Proteins encourage neurogenesis
The encephalon does non deed every bit a estimator inwards a linear fashion- The encephalon uses multiple strategies to create meaning. The encephalon is incapable of multitasking.
The encephalon does non perform good nether every bit good much stress – stressed encephalon doesn’t acquire at all. Stress hormones interfere amongst the hippocampus’s mightiness to grow novel neurons. Stress causes encephalon damage.
Every encephalon simultaneously perceives together with creates parts together with wholes- The encephalon is a parallel processor. Thoughts, emotions together with imagination operate simultaneously. The encephalon understands together with remembers best when facts are embedded inwards natural spatial memory.
The encephalon is a social organ- it develops amend inwards concert amongst other brains.
                               
                                         The to a greater extent than yous use,
                                         The to a greater extent than yous get.

Functional units of human learning

The human encephalon is composed of thousands of functional modules i.e., mini-brains within a brain. It is through multiple, complex combinations of these functional modules, through a myriad of interconnections that our brains create functional neural systems.  The functional unit of measurement of the mental activeness is non the unmarried neuron only a circuit of interconnecting neurons all activated at the same fourth dimension (neural networks). Environmental stimulation tin flame increment the numbers of neural connections together with the forcefulness of connections. Learning is a procedure that establishes novel connections amid networks together with the novel skills or knowledge that learned is neural circuits together with networks. The encephalon is continually resculpting itself inwards reply to sense together with learning.

Brain plasticity together with learning

Marvin Minsky (1986) inwards his volume ‘The Society of Mind’ quoted every bit ‘The principal activities of brains are making changes inwards themselves.’ The brain’s mightiness to alter amongst sense is called plasticity. The encephalon is a pliable organ similar plastic, thence the term encephalon plasticity. The plasticity does non hateful large-scale physical rearrangement of regions of encephalon tissue. The changes occur exclusively inwards the internal construction (microstructure) of the brain, non its overall shape. The educational activity is functional plasticity i.e., the mightiness to alter deportment next external or internal experiences. The functional plasticity refers to the growing, dropping together with strengthening of neural networks.

Brain – based learning, BBL

The encephalon is extremely complex, dynamic together with adaptive (plasticity) system. The encephalon consists of hundreds of billions of neurons together with inter-neurons that create an enormous number neural nets or groups of neurons working together, from which our daily sense is created. The brain’s activeness is controlled yesteryear genetics, development, experience, culture, surround together with emotions.
According to Eric Jensen (2000) brain – based learning is “learning inwards accordance amongst the way the encephalon is naturally designed to learn.” According to Fishback (1999), “the creation of neural networks together with synapses are what constitutes learning.”
There are billions of neurons together with the number of synapses is to a greater extent than than 10,000 times the number of neurons (Hill, 2001). ‘A unmarried neuron tin flame select from a few thou upward to i hundred thou synapses together with each synapse tin flame have data from thousands of other neurons(“The neurons that burn together wire together”). The resulting 100 trillion synapses brand possible the complex noesis of human learners.’

Neural changes during learning

The physical encephalon is literally shaped yesteryear experience; axonal circuits change, modify together with redevelop every bit human’s age. The human encephalon genuinely maintains an amazing plasticity throughout life. This way that whatsoever learner tin flame increment their intelligence, without limits, using proper enrichment (Jensen 2000).
Neuronal growth is initiated yesteryear learning followed yesteryear assimilation together with accommodation. In assimilation, the incoming data is changed to fit inwards to existing knowledge structures. Accommodation occurs when an existing cognitive construction (i.e., electrical flow neuronal circuits) is changed to comprise novel data (Ally 2004). The human encephalon is e'er looking to associations betwixt incoming data together with experience. The greater the amount of data together with experience, the encephalon extracts together with ‘compartmentalizes’ (lateralizes) the data (Jensen 2000). Thereafter the encephalon creates patterns of meaning. The pattern making depends on yesteryear data or experience. According to Jensen (2000), ‘Learning is best when focused, diffused, together with and then focused again.’ Jensen (2000) explained that proper surround is of import for learning to occur. Color, hydration, visual stimuli, psychological stimuli, seasons, temperatures, plants, music, dissonance together with aromas tin flame all influence learning. Learning engages the entire physiology, physical evolution (stress, diet, do ), personal comfort together with emotional state volition touching on the brain. All learning involves our body, emotions, attitudes together with physical good being.

Educational neuroscience

Education is virtually enhancing learning together with neuroscience is virtually agreement the mental processes involved inwards learning (Report yesteryear the Royal Society, UK, 2011). The goal of educational neuroscience is to piece of occupation out how all learners tin flame live helped to attain their learning potentials together with to brand learning to a greater extent than effective for all learners. Neuroscientists investigate the processes yesteryear which the encephalon learns together with remembers from molecular together with cellular processes correct through to how encephalon systems function.
                             To brand life together with success easier,
                                Take amend aid of your brain.


“Brain is an apparatus amongst which nosotros think that nosotros think”.
                         –Ambrose Bierce, 1911.
“The human encephalon functions every bit a high speed meshwork system. 
 The lineament of the brain’s connections is the substitution to its speed,
 bandwidth, fidelity together with overall on-line capacity” (Dr.George Bartzokis).

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