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Ways Of Developing Critical Thinking


Thinking is the highest mental activity introduce inwards man. Thinking is the procedure of giving careful thought to something. In other words, thinking is an activeness of using one's heed to create ideas, decisions, memories etc. .  Thinking procedure involves using a sequence of skills intended to arrive at a especial outcome.Thinking is a uncomplicated cognitive functioning of observing, organizing, analyzing evaluating as well as inferring. It is a habit of intelligent conduct learned through practice. Edward de Bono said, “Thinking is a science that tin hold upward improved past times practice.” 

Critical thinking

“Critical” is derived from the Greek give-and-take kritikos which agency “to judge.” Critical thinking, also called evaluative thinking includes a complex combination of abilities such equally ordering, classifying, as well as analyzing, evaluating, observing, comparing, as well as contrasting information for job solving. Critical thinking involves questioning. Critical thinking is destination directed; it is the thinking amongst a purpose. Using logic as well as reasoning a critical thinker identifies the strengths as well as weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems. Critical thinking has 2 of import components: it includes a frame of heed as well as a number of specific mental operations.Critical thinking has 3 dimensions: an analytic, an evaluative as well as creative component. As a critical thinker, 1 has to analyse thinking inwards fellowship to evaluate it. One has to evaluate it inwards fellowship to improve it.
   Critical thinking is a procedure “orchestrates numerous skills as well as is directed toward achieving an objective."  Swartz as well as Perkins (1990) hash out critical thinking equally “the critical exam as well as evaluation –actual as well as potential- of beliefs as well as courses of action.” Ralph Waldo Emerson said, "Thinking is the function. Living is the functionary."

Definitions of critical thinking

Critical thinking may hold upward defined equally "the procedure of purposeful, self-regulatory judgement. The procedure gives reasoned consideration to evidence, contexts, conceptualizations, methods as well as criteria (American Philosophical Association, 1990).
Critical thinking is the might to analyse facts, generate as well as organize ideas, defend opinions, brand comparisons, depict inferences, evaluate arguments as well as solve problems (Chance, 1986).
Critical thinking is reasonable, reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe (Ennis 1996).
Critical thinking is skillful, reasonable thinking that is conducive to adept sentence because it is sensitive to context, relies on criteria as well as is self-correcting (Matthew Lipman).
Critical thinking is thinking nearly your thinking, spell you’re thinking, inwards fellowship to making your thinking improve (Richard Paul).
In short, critical thinking is the might to recall clearly as well as rationally. Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined procedure of evaluating information as well as evaluating our thought process. In brief, critical thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored as well as self-corrective thinking.

Critical spirit

Critical thinkers demand for certain attitudes, dispositions, passions as well as traits of mind. Thinking critically requires a critical spirit or critical mindedness (Norris, 1985). The critical spirit requires 1 to recall critically nearly all aspects of life, to recall critically nearly one’s ain thinking as well as to human activeness on the solid soil of what 1 has considered when using critical thinking skills.Critical thinking skills enable people to evaluate, compare, analyse, critique as well as synthesize information.

Principles of critical thinking

Critical thinking is an active procedure – It involves inwards gathering, analyzing, synthesizing, assessing as well as applying information inwards solving problems.
Critical thinking is an organized as well as systematic process – It involves using criteria or standards to approximate the validity of information.
Critical thinking is a search for pregnant – it is a way of making feel out of the information or information.
Critical thinking is reflective – It involves thinking nearly your thinking.
Critical thinking involves standards – Accuracy, relevance as well as depth are some examples of standards or criteria.
Critical thinking is authentic – critical thinking is thinking nearly existent problems. Real problems are oft messy as well as unclear.
Critical thinking involves beingness reasonable – for thinking to hold upward critical, it must hold upward reasonable thinking.
Critical thinking is a science that tin hold upward learned – It is based on active, logical reasoning on facts as well as evidence as well as a wish to learn.

Intellectual standards of critical thinking (Paul as well as Elder 2001).

Critical thinking includes a complex combination of skills. Critical thinkers work the intellectual tools that critical thinking offers-concepts as well as principles that enable them to analyse, assess as well as improve thinking. Critical thinkers should cheque their thinking according to the next standards of Paul as well as Elder (2001).The standards of critical thinking are clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, logic, significance as well as fairness. Standards are essential to increasing the character of thinking. Increased science inwards the application of standards improves the procedure of critical thinking.
  • Clarity- understandable, the pregnant tin hold upward grasped;
  • Accuracy- costless from errors or distortions, true; 
  • Precision-exact to the necessary flat of detail;
  • Relevance-relating to the affair at hand;
  • Depth- containing complexities as well as multiple interrelationships;
  • Breadth- encompassing multiple viewpoints;
  • Logic-the parts brand feel together, no contradictions;
  • Significance-focusing on the important, non trivial;
  • Fairness – justifiable, non self-serving or 1 sided.

3 – Parts of critical thinking

Firstly, critical thinking involves bespeak questions. Secondly, critical thinking involves trying to respond those questions past times reasoning them out. Thirdly, critical thinking involves believing the results of our reasoning.

5 – Step procedure of critical thinking - IDEAS

Step 1.Identify the job as well as prepare priorities (I)
Step 2.Deepen agreement as well as get together relevant information (D)
Step 3.Enumerate options as well as anticipate consequences (E).
Step 4.Assess province of affairs as well as brand a preliminary conclusion (A).
Step 5.Scrutinize the procedure as well as self-correct equally needed (S)
The might to recall critically requires a dandy bargain of effort as well as time. Critical thinking is that vogue of thinking –about whatever subject, content or job – inwards which the thinker improves the character of his/her thinking past times skilfully taking accuse of the structures inherent inwards thinking as well as imposing the intellectual standards ( or a flat or flat of quality) (Paul as well as Willsen, 1993).

A listing of critical thinking skills based on Maker as well as Nielson ( 1996)

·         Determining fact as well as opinion
·         Choosing relevant from irrelevant information.
·         Determining the accuracy of a statement.
·         Determining the credibility of a source.
·         Recognizing ambiguities.
·         Identifying underlying assumptions.
·         Determining external as well as internal bias.
·         Recognizing valid as well as fallacious arguments.

5-main theoretical requirements for critical thinking (Joe Y.F.Lau 1968)

1.       Meaning analysis – Explain ideas clearly as well as systematically; work definitions as well as other tools to clarify pregnant as well as brand ideas to a greater extent than precise.
2.       Logic – Analyse as well as evaluate arguments; put logical consequences as well as inconsistencies.
3.       Scientific methods – Use empirical information to essay out a theory; put causes as well as effects; probability theory as well as statistics.
4.       Decision as well as values -Rational conclusion making; critical reflection of value frameworks as well as moral judgements.
5.       Fallacies as well as biases – Typical mistakes of reasoning as well as psychological traits probable to motility such mistakes.

Characteristics of a critical thinker (Paul R as well as Elder L, 2010)

1.       One who raises vital questions as well as problems, formulating them clearly as well as precisely.
2.       One who gathers as well as assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to translate it effectively.
3.       One who comes to well- reasoned conclusions as well as solutions, testing them against relevant criteria or standards.
4.       One who thinks open-mindedly inside alternative systems of thought, recognizing as well as assessing, equally demand be, their assumptions, implications as well as practical consequences as well as
5.       One who communicates effectively amongst others inwards figuring out solutions to complex problems.

 Critical thinking as well as creativity

The ideas are normally composed of dissimilar elements. Our shop of ideas (knowledge base) provides the ingredients to generate novel ones. The novel combination of ideas is formulated past times joining dissimilar ideas together. In full general novel ideas are quondam ones rearranged inwards a novel way. The ingredients for inventiveness depend on the shop of ideas that are available for recombination.
Critical thinking is necessary to assist create upward one's heed the relevance as well as effectiveness of the idea. It is a necessary status for cognitive creativity- the generation of novel ideas as well as the evaluation as well as alteration of quondam ideas. Creativity is enhanced past times the might to discovery connections betwixt the ideas. So if anyone wants to hold upward creative, he /she must educate the science of critical thinking to come across the connections betwixt dissimilar areas. Good thinking involves both critical thinking as well as creativity.

Benefits of critical thinking

 Critical thinking is higher-order as well as to a greater extent than complex cast of thinking. It involves to a greater extent than evidence – based analysis of information as well as clear agreement of problems as well as solutions. Critical thinking enables faster, accurate as well as logical inferences as well as character decisions. Critical thinking is inherent to job solving as well as conclusion making. Good critical thinking is a cognitive skill. Using critical thinking, 1 is able to acquire knowledge, understanding, insights as well as skills inwards whatever given trunk of content. Critical thinkers are to a greater extent than flexible inwards their thinking as well as they offering a richer multifariousness of explanations as well as solutions for whatever problem. H5N1 good cultivated critical thinker thinks open-mindedly inside alternative systems of thought, recognizing as well as assessing their assumptions, implications as well as practical consequences. People, who recall critically, consistently effort to alive rationally, reasonably as well as empathetically. Critical thinking contributes to the process of self-evaluation as well as transformation. They easily recognize opportunities as well as avoid making mistakes inwards problem-solving. Critical thinking results inwards improved planning of tasks. Critical thinking skills are essential for all sorts of careers inwards which nosotros own got to communicate ideas, brand decisions, analyse as well as solve problems. Good critical thinking is the foundation of scientific discipline as well as democracy. Science requires rationality inwards designing experiments as well as testing hypotheses. H5N1 adept commonwealth requires citizens who tin recall objectively nearly social as well as political issues. The tillage of critical thinking is fundamental to the aim of education.
            Critical thinking uses evidence-based analysis of information.



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