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Howard Gardner's Theory Of Multiple Intelligences

The theory of multiple intelligences (MI) was developed inward 1983 past times doc Howard Gardner, professor of pedagogy at Harvard University. In his book, Frames of Mind, Gardner described 7 distinct types of intelligences-logical-mathematical, verbal-linguistic, visual-spatial, musical, bodily-kinaesthetic, interpersonal together with intrapersonal. In the adjacent edition of this majority he added ii to a greater extent than types of intelligences – naturalistic together with existential intelligence.
According to MI theory everyone possesses all of the 8 intelligences. However the extent to which each is developed inward an private varies from somebody to person. Each somebody has a unique word profile. Gardner claims that word is non fixed, but continually expands together with changes throughout one’s life. Gardner regards these intelligences non as skills but as “biological potentials” which are realized to a greater or lesser extent depending upon opportunities together with motivation (Gardner 2004). According to Gardner’s theory, ane shape of word is non improve than another; they are as valuable together with feasible (Gardner 1983). Multiple word theory challenged the dominant Definition of word as limited to linguistic together with mathematical abilities (verbal together with computational intelligences). G-theory defines word as an innate full general capacity to larn that varies inward sum from somebody to person, but which is relatively stable over the life span.

Gardner’s Definition of intelligence

According to Gardner, word is, “the talent to solve problems or attain products that are considered valuable inward ane or several cultures.” He stated that word tin live on described as the combination of psychological together with biological characteristics that enable individuals to solve problems or exercise products that are valued inward ane or to a greater extent than cultures (Gardner 1999). Gardner farther suggests that thinking, occupation solving together with creating are valued differently depending on the household unit of measurement together with community inward which individuals live, larn together with work.

Domains of multiple intelligence

Gardner proposed that at that spot were 8 relatively autonomous but interconnected intelligences:
Verbal/linguistic word (word smart / majority smart) - refers to the mightiness to usage linguistic communication masterfully to limited oneself rhetorically or poetically e.g. the writer, orator.
Logical/ mathematical word (number smart/logic smart) - refers to the mightiness to concentrate on mathematical problems, hypotheses together with mean value logically e.g. the scientist, philosopher.
Visual/spatial word (picture smart/art smart) – refers to the mightiness to manipulate together with exercise mental images inward social club to solve problems e.g. the architect, engineer, sculptor.
Bodily/kinaesthetic word (body smart/ drive smart) – refers to the mightiness to usage one’s heed to command one’s bodily drive e.g. the athlete, dancer, actor, surgeon.
Musical/ rhythmic word (music smart/ audio smart) – refers to the mightiness to read, understand, together with compose musical pitches, tones together with rhythms e.g. the entertainer, musician.
Interpersonal word (people smart/ grouping smart) – refers to the mightiness to apprehend the feelings together with intention of others e.g. the counsellor, minister, teacher.
Intrapersonal word (self smart/ introspection smart) – refers to the mightiness to sympathise one’s ain feelings together with motivations e.g. the poet, efficiency expert.
Naturalist word (nature smart) – refers to the mightiness to relate to the natural footing amongst clarity together with sensitivity e.g. biologist, environmentalist.
Existential intelligence – refers to the mightiness to explore complex philosophical questions.

Bases of multiple word theory

According to Gardner, at that spot are biological together with cultural bases for multiple intelligences. The neurobiological enquiry indicates that learning is an upshot of the modifications inward the synaptic connections betwixt encephalon cells. The various types of learning outcome inward synaptic connections inward dissimilar areas of brain. Since dissimilar cultures value dissimilar types of intelligences, one’s cultural context plays large roles inward the formation of intelligence. There is extensive anthropological evidence indicates that for sure intelligences (or abilities) be inward highly evolved levels inward for sure cultures.

Claims of multiple word theory

The get-go claim is that all human beings own all of the 8 intelligences. Of course of written report the 8 intelligences run together inward ways unique to each person. The minute claim is that simply as nosotros all await dissimilar together with convey dissimilar personalities together with temperaments, nosotros as good exhibit dissimilar profiles of intelligences. Gardner suggests that virtually everyone has the capacity to develop all 8 intelligences to a reasonably high score of performance, if given the appropriate encouragement, enrichment together with instruction. Gardner suggests that word commonly piece of work together inward complex ways. Gardner argues that virtually tasks require to a greater extent than than ane intelligences working together. Gardner farther suggests that at that spot are many ways to live on intelligent inside each category. There is no laid of attributes that ane must convey to live on considered intelligent inward a specific area. Multiple word theory emphasizes the rich diverseness of ways inward which people demo their gifts inside intelligences as good as betwixt intelligences. Gardner has based his claims for the existence of at to the lowest degree 8 intelligences on psychological, neuropsychological, neurobiological, historical together with evolutionary evidences as good as on findings from psychological experimental tasks.

Messages of multiple word model

1.       We are born amongst a unique mix of all 8 intelligences.
2.       Intelligences combine inward complex ways.
3.       There are many ways to live on intelligent inside each category.
4.       Most people tin develop each word to an adequate score of competency.
5.       Each multiple word begins as a biological potential that is shaped exponentially as the private develops.

Applications of multiple word theory

Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences provides a theoretical foundation for recognizing the dissimilar abilities together with talents of students. Gardner states that students larn inward dissimilar ways together with demand a variety of experiences to develop all their ways of learning. Multiple word theory tin live on used for curriculum development, planning instruction, pick of course of written report activities together with related assessment strategies. Using multiple intelligences inward classrooms engages dissimilar styles of learning inward social club to maximize educational success, intellectual growth together with enthusiasm amidst various learners.
Application of multiple intelligences enhances one’s self-awareness together with increase self-esteem.
Managers who convey multiple intelligences tin sympathise the challenges confront amongst employees. The highest performing managers together with leaders convey significantly to a greater extent than ‘multiple word competencies’ than other managers.
Businesses tin usage multiple word theory to construction workshops together with preparation sessions for employees which volition heighten teamwork, develop human potential together with foster creativity.
     Multiple word theory has applications to education



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