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Metacognition: Thinking Most One's Thinking

Metacognition refers to critical analysis of thought or purposeful thoughtfulness. Metacognition refers to the knowledge, awareness too command of one’s ain thinking too learning. During Metacognition, 1 tin examine one’s ain brain’s processing.  Metacognition is a shape of cognition, a higher fellowship thinking physical care for or a supervisory or metalevel system which involves active command over cognitive processes. It tin hold out only described every bit thinking almost thinking or knowing almost knowing or noesis almost cognition. Metacognition serves many various functions. Metacognition plays an of import role inwards communication, reading comprehension, linguistic communication acquisition, social cognition, attention, self-control, memory, self-instruction, writing, work solving too personality evolution (Cooper 1999). Learning is facilitated through the usage of metacognitive strategies that identify, monitor too regulate cognitive processes.

Metacognition-meaning too definition

John Flavell, a psychologist of Stanford University is regarded every bit a foundation researcher inwards metacognition.  Metacognition was get-go coined past times Flavell In the mid 1970s. The term Metacognition every bit used past times Flavell (1979) refers to an individual’s awareness of his/her cognitive processes too strategies. The give-and-take “Metacognition” combines the prefix “meta” (derived from Greek pregnant after, behind, or beyond) amongst noesis which refers to the physical care for of knowing (derived from a Latin verb pregnant “to larn or to know). Metacognition is described every bit the powerfulness to monitor, regulate too guide strategies inwards doing a task. The strategies tin include whatever methods, thoughts, beliefs, practices, tricks, behaviours or moods that are specifically cultivated to improve one’s powerfulness to learn.

Metacognition is of import because it affects acquisition, comprehension, retention too application of what is learned. In add-on it may touching critical thinking, work –solving too determination making.  Metacognition include both knowledge too strategy components. Cognitive too metacognitive strategies are closely intertwined too subject upon each other. Metacognition involves data processing activities. Metacognition refers to thinking that enables the understanding, analysis too rule of thought processes. Metacognition is defined every bit thinking almost one’s thoughts (Harris too Hodges 1995). The National Research Council (2001) defines Metacognition every bit “the physical care for of reflecting on too directing one’s ain thinking.”

Metacognitive components

Metacognition consists of 2 complementary elements such every bit metacognitive knowledge too metacognitive rule (Flavell 1979).
Metacognitive knowledge – awareness of one’s thinking – refers to what the learner knows too understands almost the chore inwards hand.
Metacognitive regulation – the powerfulness to cope one’s ain thinking processes –refers to the strategies the learner uses to consummate the task.
Flavell (1979) describes 3 kinds of metacognitive knowledge.
1.Awareness of knowledge –understanding what 1 knows, what 1 does non know too what 1 wants to know.
2. Awareness of thinking – agreement cognitive tasks too the nature of what is required to consummate them.
3. Awareness of thinking strategies – agreement approaches to directing learning.
There are 3 kinds of content knowledge. Researches back upward the claim that skilled learners possess declarative, procedural too conditional knowledge almost cognition. This knowledge commonly improves learner’s performance.
1.Declarative knowledge – knowing ‘about’ things – knowledge of one’s ain learning processes too almost strategies.
2. Procedural knowledge – knowing ‘how’ to create things – knowing what skills too strategies to usage too how to apply them.
3. Conditional knowledge – knowing ‘when’ too ‘why’ to apply unlike cognitive actions- knowledge almost why too when various learning strategies should hold out used.
Metacognitive regulation refers to a laid of activities assist learners to command their learning. It includes 3 essential skills:
1. Planning – involves working out how a chore powerfulness hold out approached earlier you lot create it.
2. Monitoring – refers to the learners on –task awareness of progress, comprehension too overall performance.
3. Evaluation – requires the learner to review the outcomes too efficiency of the learning sense e.g. revisiting goals too conclusions.

Metacognitive levels of thought

1.Tacit –thinking without thinking almost it;
2. Aware –thinking too beingness aware that you lot are thinking;
3. Strategic – organizing our thinking past times using strategies that heighten its efficacy; and
4. Reflective – reflecting on our thinking (pondering how to perish on too how to improve; Swartz too Perkins 1990).

Metacognition too learning

Metacognition allows learners to accept accuse of their ain learning. It involves awareness of how they learn, an evaluation of their learning needs, generating strategies to run into these needs too and hence implementing the strategies (Hacker 2009). Metacognitive strategies inwards learning include planning for learning, thinking almost the learning physical care for every bit it taking place, monitoring of one’s comprehension too evaluating the learning outcomes. Monitoring too reflecting on the physical care for too products of one’s ain learning is crucial to successful learning every bit good every bit to learning how to learn. Metacognitive knowledge is crucial for efficient independent learning because it fosters forethought too self- reflection. John Dewey oft considered the begetter of progressive education, viewed reflection every bit a key component subdivision of active learning. Metacognitive skills are essential for lifelong learning. Metacognition helps the learners to sympathise how they learn, their strengths too their needs too amend sympathise the learning process. Palinscar too Brown suggested 4 concrete teachable metacognitive learning activities: summarizing, questioning, clarifying too predicting.  Ann Brown too her colleagues (1983) depict 3 ways nosotros straight off our ain learning:
Planning approaches to tasks –identifying the problem, choosing strategies, organizing our thoughts too predicting outcomes.
Monitoring activities during learning – testing, revising too evaluating the effectiveness of our strategies too
Checking outcomes – evaluating the outcomes against specific criteria of efficiency too effectiveness.

Metacognition too reading

Metacognition plays an of import role inwards reading comprehension. Metacognitively skilled readers are readers who are aware of knowledge, procedures too controls of the reading process. They usage this knowledge during the reading physical care for to improve reading too comprehension ability. Reading comprehension refers to the powerfulness of readers to sympathise the surface too the hidden meanings of the text using metacognitive strategies.  The reading strategies include metacognitive components such every bit inferring, self-questioning, monitoring, ‘fixing’ too summarizing. Reading for pregnant involves the metacognitive activity of comprehension monitoring too reading for remembering includes identifying of import ideas, testing one’s mastery of material, developing effective report strategies too allocating report fourth dimension appropriately.

Metacognition too listening

Metacognition has a lot to offering to listening comprehension.   Metacognitive strategies for listening include analysing requirements of a listening task, activating appropriate listening physical care for required, making appropriate predictions, monitoring their comprehension too evaluating the success of their listening approach (Vandergrift 1997).

Metacognition too work –solving

 Research has shown that 1 of the key traits proficient work solvers possess is highly developed metacognitive skills too are by too large self-aware thinkers. Davidson, Deuser too Sternberg (1994) identified 4 metacognitive processes that may hold out applicable inwards solving problems: identifying too defining a problem, mentally representing the problem, planning how to perish on too evaluating what you lot know almost your performance.  Some of the metacognitive processes involved inwards work solving situations include self-planning, self-monitoring, self-regulating, self-reflecting and/or self-reviewing.  Learners amongst superior metacognitive abilities are amend work – solvers.

Benefits of metacognition

Metacognition is of import for the evolution of critical thinking too effective learning (Larkin2000). Metacognition in 1 lawsuit learned, supports reflective thinking, helps work solving, gives responsibleness too improves self-confidence for quicker decisions for the residuum of one’s life (Kuiper 2002). Metacognition plays a pivotal role inwards oral comprehension, reading comprehension, work solving, attention, memory, social cognition, sure enough types of self-control too self – instruction (Gama2000). Metacognition is closely intertwined amongst learning to learn, life-long learning, flexible learning, independent learning, too gaining responsibleness for learning (Yurdakul 2004). Metacognition is of import inwards projection piece of work because learners must brand decisions almost what strategies to usage too how to usage them. Metacognitive skills guide maintain a positive influence on both work solving (Schoenfeld 1987) too mathematical work solving (Hacker 1998). Metacognition enable educators to instruct students how to larn every bit good every bit what to learn. Metacognitive knowledge is critical inwards guiding the writing process. As noted past times Strickland (1972) “The lineament of what is expressed inwards writing depends upon the lineament of thinking that undergirds it.”

Concluding thoughts

Metacognition enables a critical awareness of one’s thinking too learning too oneself every bit a thinker too learner. Metacognition is crucial to effective thinking too competent performance. Good metacognitive thinkers are besides proficient intentional learners. The component subdivision of noesis is to solve problems. The component subdivision of Metacognition is to regulate a person’s cognitive functioning inwards solving a work or executing a chore (Vos 2001). “To brand an private metacognitively aware is to ensure that the private has learned how to learn” (Garner 1988).



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