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Lifelong Self-Directed Learning

Self-directed learning (SDL) is listed every bit a key cistron of the 21st century science for adult learners. Self-directed learning is viewed every bit a procedure “in which a learner assumes master copy responsibleness for planning, implementing as well as evaluating the learning process” (Brockett as well as Hiemstra 1991). Self –directed learners larn to a greater extent than things as well as larn amend than instructor –directed learners (TDL). The finish of lifelong learning is to equip people alongside skills as well as competencies to kicking the bucket on their ain “self-education” beyond the borders of formal education. Online learning is also closely associated alongside self-directed learning from both the procedure as well as the personal attribute perspective. American Association of Colleges as well as Universities (2002, 2007) suggests that a major finish of higher teaching is to exercise lifelong learners – intentional, independent, self-directed learners, who tin acquire, retain as well as squall back novel knowledge on their own. Now a days in that place is increasing recognition of the importance self-directed learning inside higher education. Knowles (1975) views self-directed learning every bit an inherent feature of adults, closely related to a natural procedure of professional person as well as psychological development.

Basic ideas of self-directed learning
The concept of SDL consists of iii distinctive ideas: (1) H5N1 self-initiated procedure of learning that stresses individual’s might to excogitation as well as stimulate exercise his/her ain learning. (2) An attribute or feature of learners alongside personal autonomy every bit its hallmark. (3) H5N1 agency of organizing instruction inwards formal settings that allows for greater learner command (Cafferella 1993). Self-directed learning is also named, “self-teaching, independent learning, autonomous learning, private learning, self-initiated learning, self-instruction, self-study as well as self-education.”
Goals of self-directed learning
The goals of SDL tin endure grouped every bit follows: (1) to get upwards the might of adult learners to endure self directed inwards their learning ; (2) to foster transformational learning every bit fundamental to SDL; (3) to promote emancipatory  learning as well as social activity every bit an integral business office of SDL.
Characteristics of self-directed learners
  1.    Independent inwards learning;
  2.    Effective inwards learning;
  3.   Accepting of responsibleness for learning, and
  4.   Able to purpose employment solving skills.
Competencies for beingness a self directed learner (Knowles 1995)
  1.  Understanding the differences betwixt teacher- directed as well as self-directed learning;
  2.  Determining one’s concept every bit a self-directed being;
  3.  Relating to peers collaboratively as well as as  resources for learning;
  4.  Diagnosing learning needs as well as formulating objectives;
  5.  Viewing teachers every bit facilitators;
  6.  Identifying other resources;
  7. Collecting as well as validating evidence of accomplishments.
Knowles (1995) defined SDL every bit a procedure inwards which individuals accept the initiative’ without the tending of others, inwards diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identifying human as well as textile resources for learning, choosing as well as implementing appropriate learning strategies as well as evaluating those learning outcomes.
Self- directed learning is whatever knowledge, skill, accomplishment or personal evolution that an private selects as well as brings well-nigh past times his or her ain efforts using whatever method inwards whatever circumstances at whatever fourth dimension (Gibbons 2002).
Steps inwards SDL (Knowles 1975)
The learners undergo next steps: (1) climate setting; (2) diagnosing learning needs; (3) formulating learning goals; (4) identifying human as well as textile resources for learning; (5) choosing as well as implementing appropriate learning strategies; as well as (6) evaluating learning outcomes.
Advantages of SDL
  1. Self-directed learning promotes self-confidence, initiative, perseverance as well as life satisfaction.
  2.  Self-directed learning helps learners to endure motivated, independent, self-reflective, self-disciplined as well as finish oriented.
  3. Self-directed learning provides opportunities to pursue wider make of interests other than the green schoolhouse curriculum.
  4. Self-directed learners tin gain novel skills, knowledge as well as attitudes to improve their locomote performances.
  5. Self-directed learning inwards higher teaching provides opportunities for adult learners to larn how to larn every bit good every bit lifelong learning.
  6. Self-directed learning tin non solely leads to endure to a greater extent than effective learning, simply tin also outcome inwards immediate professional person successes.
Disadvantages of SDL
  1.  Self-directed learning is prone to frequent errors.
  2.  Self-directed learning is quite fourth dimension consuming.
SDL refers to an instructional method. SDL is compatible alongside whatever as well as all learning styles as well as strategies. SDL is a procedure of learning appropriate for adults, who weaned away from traditional educational consumption. Self-directed learning is fully an autonomous learning. Personal autonomy is the hallmark of SDL. Self-directed learners accept total responsibleness for their education. SDL is a procedure that centres on the activities of planning, implementing as well as evaluating learning. Self – management does non hateful the learner learns lonely or inwards isolation. SDL occurs exterior of formal institutions. SDL is NOT fourth dimension –dependent.  SDL is a tool for lifelong learning. SDL provides a foundation for transformative learning. Educators tin facilitate learners kicking the bucket increasingly able to assume personal responsibleness for their ain learning (Brockett as well as Hiemstra1991). Educational institutions  at all levels tin cook learners for a life of self-direction.

              Self-direction inwards learning is a agency of life (Brockett as well as Hiemstra 1991).



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